Bali Religion And Culture

Bali Religion And Culture

The first time stepping in Bali (or it is called as Gumi Bali), the Bali Religion atmosphere will be very much felt. It is hard to define, unless one experiences himself. The feeling will be strongly flowing from the sacred Balinese estuary of Hindu Religion, as it is the majority of Balinese people.

Since the creation, Bali is the throne of Gods, as the island of God. Ida Bhatara refers to God as to many people. Somehow, the core recognized and inspired as the NYA term is Ida Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa. If there are any other terms, such as Dewa or Bhatara, it is merely as the expression of the God’s greatness in Hindu point of view.

In conducting the essence of life, Balinese adhere Hindu Religion are supported with three basic concepts, namely: tattwa, susila, and upacara.

In Bali Religion, it's also known Tattwa. Tattwa includes Panca Sraddha, the five belief adhered by Hindu religion, such as :
  1. Widhi Tattwa, the ceremony to Sang Hyang Widhi with all His dimensions.
  2. Atma Tattwa, the belief with the existence of Atma, the soul providing life all human being.
  3. Karmaphala, the belief of the existence of causal law of the behaviors. It means that every behavior has causal dimension to the behavior itself.
  4. Punarbawa, the belief of reincarnation.
  5. Moksa, the belief of the eternal life of the end of human journey where atman unites with Sang Hyang Widhi (paramatman).
In Hindu perspective, God is known as a term of Ida Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa, which means God, Almighty. The God is only one, though He has various names. From the various names of God, there are three which are well known by the adherers of Hindu in Bali, namely, Brahma, Visnu and Siva, which are called as Tri Murti.

Brahma is the Dimension of Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa as the creator (utpatti), Visnu is the manifestation of Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa as the caretaker (sthiti) and Siwa is the manifestation of Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa as the destroyer (praline). That's why Balinese believe that all the creation of Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa will face the cycle of birth, life and death.

The essence of power of Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa is expressed by every family of Hindu in Bali in Pemrajan, Sangah or the place of worshipping in every house, dadya, village as well as Jagad Bali.

In the Balinese culture, there is Susila. Susila is the organization of good and right behavior which is generated from the Hindu religion’s aspect. Balinese people believe that the application of Susila in the good and right instruction will lead the society into a harmony and into an appropriate people interaction. Susila not only refers to the human’s interaction, but also to human and God, human and nature as it is understood in Tri Hita Karana’s concept.

Tattwam Asi is meant as I is You, You is I. Thus, if we hurt other people, it means we also hurt ourselves. As in the Tattwam Asi concept, every human being is the same, as it is derived from the only paramatman.

The operational concept of susila with Tattwam Asi philosophy is expressed in Tri Kaya Parisuddha, or three good and right behavior, such as :
  1. Manacika Parisuddha
  2. Wacika Parisuddha
  3. Kayika Parisuddha

Manacika is exposing a sacred and appropriate way of thinking. Wacika is exposing a good and appropriate word. Kayika is showing a good and appropriate behavior. Thus, The Tri Kaya Paisuddha is showing the right way of thinking, speaking and behavior.

Upacara (Ceremony) in Hindu perspective is a kind yadnya (sacrifice) expressed in Panca Yadnya which consists of:
  1. Dewa Yadnya is a holy sacrifice to Sang Hyang Widhi held in the form of ceremony in jagad, sad kahyangan and village temples.
  2. Rsi Yadnya is a holy sacrifice to priests or holy persons by learning the holy books of Hindu and disseminates it.
  3. Manusia Yadnya is a ceremony for people since their birth to adult. Visually, the implementation of manusia yadnya ceremony is also expressed by conducting myadnya for poor people, isfortune people and so forth.
  4. Pitra Ydnya is a holy sacrifice for ancestors from funeral ceremony, cremation to the ceremony of ngasti and so forth.
  5. Bhuta Yadnya is a holy sacrifice for evil spirit called bhuta. This ceremony is often expressed to somya the evil spirit immaterially. Materially, Bhuta Yadnya ceremony is also for the animals and plants by taking care of them.

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